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Groupe de Skull S Pub

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Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. Male 15

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For decades, footwear brands have developed products using outdated methods and measurements, working with limited insight into the foot shapes and dimensions of their target customers. The integration of 3D scanning technology into footwear retail stores has made it possible for this research to analyze a database containing a large number of male and female 3D foot scans collected across North America, Europe, and Asia. Foot scans were classified into length classes with 5mm length increments; mean width, instep height, and heel width were calculated for each length class. This study confirms the existence of many statistically significant differences in mean foot measurements amongst the regions and between the sexes, and a large dispersion of foot measurements within each group of customers. Therefore, shoes should be developed separately for each group, region, and sex, and at least 3 shoe widths per length class are required to provide a proper fit for 90% of customers. Beyond this, our analysis asserts that a shoe designed for a single group will fit a different segment of the population in another group, and that existing last grading tables should be updated to reflect the foot dimensions of current consumers.

Information about foot dimensions and shapes should be used in the footwear development process in order to produce shoes that fit the target customers. Previous studies have analyzed foot shapes and measurements, and some studies have identified sex-related differences in foot dimensions. In the USA, the feet of the male and female subjects differ significantly in 11 distinct foot measurements3. The feet of female subjects are relatively higher, but narrower than those of male subjects in the USA4. In Europe, Australia, China, and Taiwan, the feet of female subjects are lower and narrower compared to the male feet of similar foot length5,6,7,8. Other studies have identified differences between geographical regions. The shape of the forefoot of male subjects from Korea and Japan differs from that of North American male subjects9. The feet of the Japanese male and female subjects are wider than the feet of the Australoid and Caucasoid subjects of similar foot length10. Female Japanese subjects have significantly different forefoot shape than Taiwanese subjects of similar foot length11. The methods of measuring feet in previous studies differ in the measurement tools and weight-bearing conditions used. Some studies have used manual or digital calipers and measuring tapes, others have used 3D foot scanners from several different vendors; therefore, results are difficult to compare between most previous studies12. Manual foot measurement methods have lower precision and accuracy than 3D scanning technology12. In most of the previous studies, body weight was equally distributed on both feet while feet were measured; in some studies, feet were measured in full weight-bearing condition. Methods of analyzing foot measurements also differ in previous studies. Some researchers have divided foot measurements per length class and compared feet within each length class, while some have compared all feet regardless of foot length, and others still have normalized feet before comparing them. Normalizing foot measurements by foot length and analyzing relative foot measurements is not recommended since information essential for grading tables is lost in the normalization step13. All the differences in foot measurement and analysis methods between previous studies make it very difficult to compare results between the studies.

The following python libraries were used in this study: Pandas and Numpy for data manipulation and statistical data analysis, Statsmodels for plotting the Q-Q plots, and Seaborn for visualization of the results. Foot length kernel density estimates (KDE) of each region were plotted separately for male and female customers in order to compare foot length distributions between the studied regions. Line plots of mean values were plotted for each foot dimension separately for male and female customers in order to demonstrate the differences between the studied regions. Box-and-whisker plots were plotted for each foot dimension separately for male and female customers in order to demonstrate the dispersion of foot measurements. Line plots of mean values were plotted for each foot dimension separately for each region in order to demonstrate the differences between male and female dimensions.

Mean foot dimensions (in mm) with 95% confidence intervals. (A) Mean foot width - male. (B) Mean instep height - male. (C) Mean heel width - male. (D) Mean foot width - female. (E) Mean instep height - female. (F) Mean heel width - female.

Box plots of foot dimensions. (A) Foot width box plot - male. (B) Instep height box plot - male. (C) Heel width box plot - male. (D) Foot width box plot - female. (E) Instep height box plot - female. (F) Heel width box plot - female.

Similar to the substantial foot width dispersion of male customers in Fig. 4(A) described above, considerable dispersion can be observed for all other foot dimensions: male instep height (B), male heel width (C), female foot width (D), female instep height (E), and female heel width (F).

Differences between male and female feet. (A) Mean foot widths of North American customers. (B) Mean foot widths of European customers. (C) Mean foot widths of Asian customers. (D) Mean instep heights of North American customers. (E) Mean instep heights of European customers. (F) Mean instep heights of Asian customers. (G) Mean heel widths of North American customers. (H) Mean heel widths of European customers. (I) Mean heel widths of Asian customers.

Previous studies3,4,5,6,7,8 have reported substantial differences between male and female feet. This study confirms significant differences of mean widths, instep heights, and heel widths between male and female feet in all three geographical regions. The largest differences were observed for mean instep heights and widths, while the differences in heel widths were lower. The practical implication of the significant differences in foot dimensions among the 3 global regions and between male and female feet within each region is that shoes would have to be developed separately for each region and sex in order to take these factors into consideration.

In summary, shoes should be developed separately for each region and sex in order to take into account the differences in foot measures between the regions and the sexes. Shoes for the Asian market should be made wider compared to the shoes for the North American and the European market, and shoes for the European market should be made higher in the instep compared to the shoes for the Asian and the North American market. Male shoes for all 3 regions should be made wider and higher in the instep compared to female shoes. For all regions and both sexes, shoes should be produced in several widths in order to provide proper fit to a larger percentage of the customers. Finally, grading tables should take into account the findings of this study; scaling factors should not be linear across the whole size range, and height scaling factors should be lower than width scaling factors.

Ascaris species are very large (adult females: 20 to 35 cm; adult males: 15 to 30 cm) nematodes (roundworms) that parasitize the human intestine. A. lumbricoides is the primary species involved in human infections globally, but Ascaris derived from pigs (often referred to as A. suum) may also infect humans. These two parasites are very closely related, and hybrids have been identified; thus, their status as distinct, reproductively isolated species is a contentious topic.

Adult worms live in the lumen of the small intestine. A female may produce approximately 200,000 eggs per day, which are passed with the feces . Unfertilized eggs may be ingested but are not infective. Larvae develop to infectivity within fertile eggs after 18 days to several weeks , depending on the environmental conditions (optimum: moist, warm, shaded soil). After infective eggs are swallowed , the larvae hatch , invade the intestinal mucosa, and are carried via the portal, then systemic circulation to the lungs . The larvae mature further in the lungs (10 to 14 days), penetrate the alveolar walls, ascend the bronchial tree to the throat, and are swallowed . Upon reaching the small intestine, they develop into adult worms. Between 2 and 3 months are required from ingestion of the infective eggs to oviposition by the adult female. Adult worms can live 1 to 2 years.

Although heavy infections in children may cause stunted growth via malnutrition, adult worms usually cause no acute symptoms. High worm burdens may cause abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction and potentially perforation in very high intensity infections. Migrating adult worms may cause symptomatic occlusion of the biliary tract, appendicitis, or nasopharyngeal expulsion, particularly in infections involving a single female worm.

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